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Apparatus for producing orthohydrogen and/or parahydrogen


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Abstract

An apparatus for producing orthohydrogen and/or parahydrogen. The apparatus includes a container holding water and at least one pair of closely-spaced electrodes arranged within the container and submerged in the water. A first power supply provides a particular first pulsed signal to the electrodes.

A coil may also be arranged within the container and submerged in the water if the production of parahydrogen is also required. A second power supply provides a second pulsed signal to the coil through a switch to apply energy to the water.

When the second power supply is disconnected from the coil by the to switch and only the electrodes receive a pulsed signal, then orthohydrogen can be produced.

When the second power supply is connected to the coil and both the electrodes and coil receive pulsed signals, then the first and second pulsed signals can be controlled to produce parahydrogen. The container is self-pressurized and the water within the container requires no chemical catalyst to efficiently produce the orthohydrogen and/or parahydrogen. Heat is not generated, and bubbles do not form on the electrodes.


Inventors: Chambers; Stephen Barrie (Alberta, CA)
Assignee: Xogen Power Inc. (Calgary, CA)
Appl. No.: 105023
Filed: June 26, 1998
Current U.S. Class: 204/230.5; 204/230.6; 204/230.7; 204/230.8; 204/270; 204/272; 204/278; 204/293; 204/DIG9
Intern'l Class: C25B 015/00; C25B 009/00; C25B 011/04
Field of Search: 204/230.6,230.7,242,267,270,272,278,230.5,DIG. 9,230.8

References Cited [Referenced By]

U.S. Patent Documents
3311097 Mar., 1967 Mittelstaedt 204/278.
3980053 Sep., 1976 Horvath.
4107008 Aug., 1978 Horvath.
4184931 Jan., 1980 Inoue 204/129.
4316787 Feb., 1982 Themy 204/278.
4384943 May., 1983 Stoner et al.
4394230 Jul., 1983 Puharich.
4470894 Sep., 1984 Dyer.
4599158 Jul., 1986 Ofenloch 204/229.
4755305 Jul., 1988 Fremont et al.
4798661 Jan., 1989 Meyer 204/278.
5205994 Apr., 1993 Sawamoto et al.
5304289 Apr., 1994 Hayakawa.
5324398 Jun., 1994 Erickson et al.
5376242 Dec., 1994 Hayakawa.
5399251 Mar., 1995 Nakamats.
5435894 Jul., 1995 Hayakawa.
5599437 Feb., 1997 Taylor et al.
5614078 Mar., 1997 Lubin et al.
5632870 May., 1997 Kucheroy 204/278.
5695650 Dec., 1997 Held.
5698107 Dec., 1997 Wurzburger et al.
Foreign Patent Documents
0971886 Mar., 1997 JP.
9809001 Mar., 1998 WO.

Primary Examiner: Valentine; Donald R. 
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Stoel Rives LLP 

Claims




What is claimed is:



1. An apparatus comprising: 

a. a container for holding a fluid solution including water; 

b. a pair of electrodes arranged within said container, said electrodes being spaced apart from each other by 1 mm; 

c. a coil arranged within said container; 

d. a first power supply coupled to said electrodes for providing a first pulsed signal to one of said electrodes said pulsed signal having a mark-space ratio substantially equal to 10:1 and a frequency from 10 to 250 KHZ; and 

e. a second power supply switchably coupled to said coil for providing a second pulsed signal to said coil, said second pulsed signal having a frequency of about 19 HZ; 

f. wherein said electrodes are adapted for submersion in said fluid solution; 

g. said coil is disposed above said electrodes; 

h. said first pulsed signal from said first power supply has a voltage of 12 volts and a current of 300 ma; 

i. said first pulsed signal has a square-wave waveform; 

j. one of said pair of electrodes forms an inner cylinder and the other of said pair of electrodes forms an outer cylinder surrounding said inner cylinder; 

k. both of said electrodes are made of the same material; 

l. said fluid solution does not include a chemical catalyst; 

m. said container includes a pressure relief valve which opens if the pressure within said container exceeds a predetermined threshold; 

n. said container includes an outlet port for transporting pressurized gas contents of said container to a device from the group consisting of: 

1. an internal combustion engine; 

2. a reciprocating piston engine; 

3. a gas turbine engine; 

4. a stove; 

5. a heater; 

6. a furnace; 

7. a distillation unit; 

8. a water purification unit; and 

9. a hydrogen/oxygen flame jet; and 

o. a voltage level of said second pulsed signal applied to said coil is variable. 

2. An apparatus comprising: 

a. a container for holding a fluid solution including water; 

b. a pair of electrodes arranged within said container, said electrodes being spaced apart from each other by 5 mm or less; and 

c. a power supply coupled to said electrodes for providing a pulsed signal to one of said electrodes, said pulsed signal having a mark-space ratio substantially equal to 10:1 and a frequency of from 10 to 250 KHZ; 

d. wherein said electrodes are adapted for submersion in said fluid solution. 

3. The apparatus of claim 2, wherein said pulsed signal from said power supply has a voltage of 12 volts and a current of 300 ma. 

4. The apparatus of claim 3, wherein pulsed signal has a square-wave waveform. 

5. The apparatus of claim 3, wherein both of said pair of electrodes form a flat plate. 

6. The apparatus of claim 5, further comprising at least one additional pair of electrodes coupled to said power supply, wherein each electrode of said additional pair of electrodes forms a flat plate. 

7. The apparatus of claim 5, wherein both of said pair of electrodes is formed by a same material. 

8. The apparatus of claim 7, wherein said material forming said electrodes is stainless steel. 

9. The apparatus of claim 3, wherein said apparatus is adapted to produce hydrogen and oxygen from a fluid solution in the absence of a chemical catalyst. 

10. The apparatus of claim 3, wherein said container includes a pressure relief valve which opens if the pressure within said container exceeds a predetermined threshold. 

11. The apparatus of claim 3, wherein said apparatus is adapted to produce hydrogen and oxygen from a fluid solution in response to said pulsed signal and said container includes an output port for outputting said hydrogen and oxygen, and further comprising: 

a device including an input port connected to said output port for receiving said hydrogen and oxygen, said device selected from the group consisting of: 

a. an internal combustion engine; 

b. a reciprocating piston engine; 

c. a gas turbine engine; 

d. a stove; 

e. a heater; 

f. a furnace; 

g. a distillation unit; 

h. a water purification unit; and 

i. a hydrogen/oxygen flame jet. 

12. The apparatus of claim 2, wherein one of said pair of electrodes forms an inner cylinder and the other of said pair of electrodes forms an outer cylinder surrounding said inner cylinder. 

13. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein both of said pair of electrodes is formed by a same material. 

14. The apparatus of claim 13, wherein said material forming said electrodes is stainless steel. 

15. The apparatus of claim 2, wherein said apparatus is adapted to produce hydrogen and oxygen from a fluid solution in the absence of a chemical catalyst. 

16. The apparatus of claim 2, wherein said container includes a pressure relief valve which opens if the pressure within said container exceeds a predetermined threshold. 

17. The apparatus of claim 2, wherein said apparatus is adapted to produce hydrogen and oxygen from a fluid solution in response to said pulsed signal and said container includes an output port for outputting said hydrogen and oxygen, and further comprising: 

a device including an input port connected to said output port for receiving said hydrogen and oxygen, said device selected from the group consisting of: 

a. an internal combustion engine; 

b. a reciprocating piston engine; 

c. a gas turbine engine; 

d. a stove; 

e. a heater; 

f. a furnace; 

g. a distillation unit; 

h. a water purification unit; and 

i. a hydrogen/oxygen flame jet. 

18. An apparatus comprising: 

a. a container for holding a fluid solution including water; 

b. a pair of electrodes arranged within said container; 

c. a coil arranged within said container; 

d. a first power supply coupled to said electrodes for providing a first pulsed signal to one of said electrodes; and 

e. a second power supply coupled to said coil for providing a second pulsed signal to said coil. 

19. The apparatus of claim 18, wherein 

a. said electrodes are adapted for submersion in said fluid solution; and 

b. said coil is arranged above said electrodes. 

20. The apparatus of claim 19, further comprising a switch coupled to the second power supply to connect/disconnect said second power supply to/from said coil. 

21. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein said second power supply is a variable voltage power supply for varying a voltage level of said second pulsed signal over time. 

22. The apparatus of claim 21, wherein said first power supply is a variable output power supply for varying at least one output parameter of said first pulsed signal over time. 

23. The apparatus of claim 20, wherein said container includes a pressure relief valve which opens if the pressure within said container exceeds a predetermined threshold. 

24. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein said second power supply is a variable voltage power supply for varying a voltage level of said second pulsed signal over time. 

25. The apparatus of claim 24, wherein said first power supply is a variable output power supply for varying at least one output parameter of said first pulsed signal over time. 

26. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein said first power supply is a variable output power supply for varying at least one signal parameter of said first pulsed signal over time. 

27. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein said second power supply includes an astable circuit that oscillates at a frequency of between 17 Hz and 22 Hz. 

28. The apparatus of claim 19, where said pair of electrodes are spaced apart by 1 mm. 

29. The apparatus of claim 28, wherein one of said pair of electrodes forms an inner cylinder and the other of said pair of electrodes forms an outer cylinder surrounding said inner cylinder. 

30. The apparatus of claim 29, wherein both of said pair of electrodes is formed by a same material. 

31. The apparatus of claim 30, wherein said material forming said electrodes is stainless steel. 

32. The apparatus of claim 28, wherein both of said pair of electrodes form a flat plate. 

33. The apparatus of claim 32, further comprising at least one additional pair of electrodes coupled to said first power supply, wherein each electrode of said additional pair of electrodes forms a flat plate. 

34. The apparatus of claim 32, wherein both of said pair of electrodes is formed by a same material. 

35. The apparatus of claim 34, wherein said material forming said electrodes is stainless steel. 

36. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein said apparatus is adapted to produce hydrogen and oxygen from a fluid solution in the absence of a chemical catalyst. 

37. The apparatus in claim 18, wherein said apparatus is adapted to produce hydrogen and oxygen from a fluid solution in response to said first pulsed signal and said container includes an output port for outputting said hydrogen and oxygen, and further comprising: 

a device including an input port connected to said output port for receiving said hydrogen and oxygen, said device selected from the group consisting of: 

a. an internal combustion engine; 

b. a reciprocating piston engine; 

c. a. gas turbine engine; 

d. a stove; 

e. a heater; 

f. a furnace; 

g. a distillation unit; 

h. a water purification unit; and 

i. a hydrogen/oxygen flame jet.

Description




BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION



1. Field of the Invention 

The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing orthohydrogen and parahydrogen. 

2. Description of Related Art

Conventional electrolysis cells are capable of producing hydrogen and oxygen from water. These conventional cells generally include two electrodes arranged within the cell which apply energy to the water to thereby produce hydrogen and oxygen. The two electrodes are conventionally made of two different materials.

However, the hydrogen and oxygen generated in the conventional cells are generally produced in an inefficient manner. That is, a large amount of electrical power is required to be applied to the electrodes in order to produce the hydrogen and oxygen. Moreover, a chemical catalyst such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide must be added to the water to separate hydrogen or oxygen bubbles from the electrodes. Also, the produced gas must often be transported to a pressurized container for storage, because conventional cells produce the gases slowly. Also, conventional cells tend to heat up, creating a variety of problems, including boiling of the water. Also, conventional cells tend to form gas bubbles on the electrodes which act as electrical insulators and reduce the function of the cell.

Accordingly, it is extremely desirable to produce a large amount of hydrogen and oxygen with only a modest amount of input power. Furthermore, it is desirable to produce the hydrogen and oxygen with "regular" tap water and without any additional chemical catalyst, and to operate the cell without the need for an additional pump to pressurize it. It would also be desirable to construct the electrodes using the same material. Also, it is desirable to produce the gases quickly, and without heat, and without bubbles on the electrodes.

Orthohydrogen and parahydrogen are two different isomers of hydrogen. Orthohydrogen is that state of hydrogen molecules in which the spins of the two nuclei are parallel. Parahydrogen is that state of hydrogen molecules in which the spins of the two nuclei are antiparallel. The different characteristics of orthohydrogen and parahydrogen lead to different physical properties. For example, orthohydrogen is highly combustible whereas parahydrogen is a slower burning form of hydrogen.

Thus, orthohydrogen and parahydrogen can be used for different applications. Conventional electrolytic cells make only orthohydrogen and parahydrogen. Parahydrogen, conventionally, is difficult and expensive to make.

Accordingly, it is desirable to produce cheaply orthohydrogen and/or parahydrogen using a cell and to be able to control the amount of either produced by the cell. It is also desirable to direct the produced orthohydrogen or parahydrogen to a coupled machine in order to provide a source of energy for the same.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION



It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a cell having electrodes and containing water which produces a large amount of hydrogen and oxygen in a relatively small amount of time, and with a modest amount of input power, and without generating heat.

It is another object of the present invention for the cell to produce bubbles of hydrogen and oxygen which do not bunch around or on the electrodes.

It is also an object of the present invention for the cell to properly operate without a chemical catalyst. Thus, the cell can run merely on tap water. Moreover, the additional costs associated with the chemical catalyst can be avoided.

It is another object of the present invention for the cell to be self-pressurizing. Thus, no additional pump is needed.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a cell having electrodes made of the same material. This material can be stainless steel, for example. Thus, the construction of the cell can be simplified and corresponding costs reduced.

It is another object of the present invention to provide a cell which is capable of producing orthohydrogen, parahydrogen or a mixture thereof and can be controlled to produce any relative amount of orthohydrogen and parahydrogen desired by the user.

It is another object of the invention to couple the gaseous output of the cell to a device, such as an internal combustion engine, so that the device may be powered from the gas supplied thereto.

These and other objects, features, and characteristics of the present invention will be more apparent upon consideration of the following detailed description and appended claims with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein like reference numerals designate corresponding parts in the various figures.

Accordingly, the present invention includes a container for holding water. At least one pair of closely-spaced electrodes are positioned within the container and submerged under the water. A first power supply provides a particular pulsed signal to the electrodes. A coil is also arranged in the container and submerged under the water. A second power supply provides a particular pulsed signal through a switch to the electrodes.

When only the electrodes receive a pulsed signal, then orthohydrogen can be produced. When both the electrodes and coil receive pulsed signals, then parahydrogen or a mixture of parahydrogen and orthohydrogen can be produced. The container is self pressurized and the water within the container requires no chemical catalyst to efficiently produce the orthohydrogen and/or parahydrogen.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

 

 

Full Article Here:

http://www.angelfire.com/ak5/energy21/chambers.htm

Views: 140

Tags: enegy, free, hydrogen, xogen

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